MapTok: Watching the Election on TikTok

Collage of TikToks about the election

Over the last year I’ve come to really enjoy seeing the wide range of really creative things that folks are doing on TikTok. For example, I think it’s fun to see what folks do with history on the platform.

The platform is largely written off as something frivolous, but I’m routinely impressed by how people are using looping audio and video and green screen tools to create genuinely engaging stuff and thought provoking media.

As I was compulsively refreshing various online dashboard/election maps last week to see how the election was playing out, I was also switching over to TikTok a lot.

On TikTok, users were playing with those maps too, and I started thinking that by sequencing those videos you could see a bit of the emotional rollercoaster of the election playing out.

Below is the result of selecting and sequencing some of these. I included the text and hashtags that go along with each video to offer some context. I think it hangs together as a short documentary film about the election, data visualization, and storytelling on TikTok.

In these videos the states become characters with different personas. Memes like “I did it” and “what was the reason” become conversations between the states on the maps. A states teaches other states how to do a TikTok dance to a remix of a Russian Honey Nut Cheerios jingleLorde lyrics answer questions about why the map looks the way it does.

Looking at these reminds me a bit of some of the ideas that Dragan Espenschied was putting out in Big Data, Tiny Narration. That is, as we all kept refreshing these maps which pull together real time data, a whole cast of folks was sorting through what that data meant and doing creative storytelling about what it meant to them.

TikToks Included

  1. https://www.tiktok.com/@dancinchaz/video/6883907430225333510
  2. https://www.tiktok.com/@athanlau/video/6891198051642313989
  3. https://www.tiktok.com/@owenamooney/video/6891325484341234946
  4. https://www.tiktok.com/@conwilk/video/6891436701986606342
  5. https://www.tiktok.com/@n8yaz/video/6892560856945544453
  6. https://www.tiktok.com/@kaylabaumgardner2/video/6892147427181120773
  7. https://www.tiktok.com/@scoliosisth0t/video/6892141569374194950
  8. https://www.tiktok.com/@therealalisharai/video/6891947362978221318
  9. https://www.tiktok.com/@yasminghasiri/video/6891787644779433221
  10. https://www.tiktok.com/@lainabainaxo/video/6892197715942378758
  11. https://www.tiktok.com/@heyitsryanelise/video/6891987314487086342
  12. https://www.tiktok.com/@meliodas_jonn/video/6892427201053052165
  13. https://www.tiktok.com/@.devon.james/video/6892152160117591301
  14. https://www.tiktok.com/@marejonj/video/6892446640905440518

Achieving Organizational Excellence Course Syllabus

Achieving Organizational Excellence syllabus.

Over the summer I’ve been  developing a syllabus and plan for teaching LBSC 631, Achieving Organizational Excellence at the University of Maryland’s College of Information.  It is the leadership/management/organizational theory course, and it’s one of the three core courses for the UMD iSchool’s MILS program. I just sent the syllabus out to everyone in the class and I’m also posting the syllabus here for anyone who might be interested.

This is a new course for me. Over the last five years I’ve taught five other graduate seminars for the iSchool, but those were all digital curation, preservation, and policy courses.

My section of the course was originally intended to be a face to face course, so in transitioning it to an online course I ended up playing around with approaches to make sure that there is a lot of flexibility in the course design. I sent out a questionnaire  to students in advance of the semester which confirmed my sense that there would be some anxiety about both a desire for synchronous interactions from some students and concerns about how to make  synchronous  interactions work for everyones schedules during the ongoing pandemic. I’m hopeful that I’ve figured out some ways to build a lot of flexibility in on the course but it will be curious to see how it all plays out. I should note that a lot of my approach to the design of this course is anchored in a fantastic education leadership seminar I took in my Ph.D program with David Brazer.

Reading on How Orgs work and how to work Orgs

I’ve largely developed the course around Bolman and Deal’s Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership which I’ve written about before. I like how they approach work in organization in terms of competing frames; structural, human resources, political, and symbolic. I also really appreciate that their book is more about organizational theory than it is about leaders and leadership. In large part, I think the cult of leadership books on what leaders do misses out on how things really get done in the complex systems that are organizations. I’ve paired that book with some sections from Evans & Greenwell’s Management Basics for Information Professionals, which is great at being more directly focused on issues in libraries and archives but I think less strong as an overarching toolkit for understanding organizations.

Along with those two books, I’ve also assigned two other books that we will focus on for individual weeks in the semester. We will read Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us, which I continue to find to be a really accessible point of entry into a lot of work in the psychology of motivation. We will also read Systems Thinking For Social Change: A Practical Guide to Solving Complex Problems, Avoiding Unintended Consequences, which is both a great point of entry into systems thinking and also a useful book in getting us to think beyond the boundaries of individual organizations to collectively enable social change.

I’ve tried to round out readings from those books with a mixture of articles. It ended up working out that I’ve got a lot of straightforward articles from Library Leadership & Management which I’ve tried to round out with much more critical work, largely from In the Library with the Lead Pipe.

Alongside the readings, I’ve built in a few situations where students need to go out explore some resources that I think everyone in library school needs to know about. Things like the Library Journal Placement and Salaries reports, the AFL-CIO“Library Professionals: Facts, Figures, and Union Membership” results from the IMLS annual  public library survey and both the ARL Salary data and general ARL library statistics. While all these reports are pretty dry, they are also amazingly useful resources for understanding how pay works in the field and how resources are located across and within library organizations.

Reflection, Introspection, and Engagement through Assignments

I spent a lot of time trying to think of what the right kinds of assignments are for a course like this. I think this kind of course really needs to support students in working to process and synthesize their own notions of how organizations work. To that end, I decided that a core part of the course would involve weekly journaling about course readings.

At the same time, I wanted to make sure that there were opportunities for students to connect with each other. This was originally intended to be a face to face course. Beyond that, there are actually two sections of this course this semester and the other one was an online course from the start. So functionally this section of the course is all students that had explicitly opted to take a face to face version of the course. It’s great that the course can work well as an online course, but I fully realize that this isn’t what students had signed up for. Beyond that it’s a seminar with 30 students, which presents challenges for having everyone do anything together in any situation. In light of that, I worked out a process where students are going to have peer learning partners that they set up time to check in with each week and who they will read and comment on each others journals. Over the course of the semester the partners are going to rotate four times, so everyone will have a few weeks with a different partner. My hope is that this helps scaffold everyone into some rich discussions and explorations of the issues that we get into over the course of the semester.

The last major set of assignments are focused on having each student do an interview with someone working in a leadership/management role in a library or archives who they will then write an essay about that connects that persons ideas about leadership with readings from the course. My current concept is that for all the students that opt in, I will go ahead and put out an open access book of all these essays on LISSA. My hope with this assignment is that it provides a chance for everyone in the class to do some networking and meet folks working in the field while also giving us a chance to make something together that everyone can point to after the semester as an outcome from the course. I’ll be curious to see how it goes!

On Digital History: Audiences, Archives, Tools, and Sources

I’ve been kicking around the idea of working up a proposal for a book about digital history for a few years. At this point I’ve taught digital history grad seminars for a decade. Through teaching that course I think I’ve developed a particular take on the subject. That said, every time I’ve started to sketch out ideas about it I end up running out of steam.

When I went back to review a lot of work that I’ve published about digital history as part of my most recent attempt to explore this idea I ended up deciding that the set of articles and blog posts I’ve written really cover what I want to cover and say at this point. So instead of continuing  to think about developing a book proposal on this I thought I would instead just share something that works as an index to a lot of the writing I’ve done on the subject. 

Engaging Audiences and Users around Digital Collections

The web presents new ways for historians to engage with audiences and communities. I wrote Digital Cultural Heritage and the Crowd as a piece to work out a series of frames for thinking about inviting user participation with digital collections through crowdsourcing.

Many organizations produce online exhibits or narratives to go along with digital collections, but there is not much guidance on how to go about that kind of writing. While working on an online exhibit a number of years ago, I wrote up and shared a guide for writing text for online exhibits. That same project prompted me to write Curating in the Open: A Case for Iteratively and Openly Publishing Curatorial Research on the Web. That essay was largely about the way that the research and writing process for an online exhibit could become more public and open up points of entry for others to explore digital collections. 

Approaching and Understanding Digital Archives 

As historians get more involved with digital collections that work increasingly blurs boundaries between work historians do and the work of librarians and archivists. Thomas Padilla and I work to lay out a lot of foundational and definitional issues around digital archives and sources in Digital Sources & Digital Archives: The Evidentiary Basis of Digital History. I also explored some of the connections between work archivists are doing with Jesse Johnston in Archivists as Peers in Digital Public History. 

Connecting back to the points about engaging with audiences and participatory aspects of work with history, in Archives as a Service: From Archivist as Producer and Provider to Archivist as Facilitator and Enabler I made a case for revisiting notions around archives as a product and focused on a range of ways that community archives and other explorations of participatory ways of engaging with communities to organize, preserve and interpret the past. 

Digital History Tools and Computational Analysis

Toward the end of my time at the Center for History and New Media I was working on a project to explore various text mining and computational data analysis tools for historical research with Fred Gibbs. The results of that work turned into a series of essays that came out in 2012 and 2013. In Building Better Digital Humanities Tools: Toward Broader Audiences and User-Centered Designs Fred and I reported out on a range of issues that illustrated a lack of user centered design approaches to many digital humanities tools.

In parallel to that, we worked up The Hermeneutics of Data and Historical Writing, which largely focuses on ways that historians can integrate computational data analysis into historical narrative writing. While working on both of those projects I spun Defining Data for Humanists: Text, Artifact, Information or Evidence? which is a shorter piece that attempts to work across the various ways that historians can approach data. 

Engaging With and Interpreting Born Digital Sources

Over time, I’ve worked on a number of projects that explore issues with interpretation of born digital sources and historical thinning and argumentation. One of my first explorations in this area was Modding the history of science: Values at play in modder discussions of Sid Meier’s Civilization an essay that focused on how a popular video game represented the history of science and the way that its user community was imaging and altering the game as documented in online discussion forums. Rebecca Mir and I took a somewhat similar approach in Modeling Indigenous Peoples: Unpacking Ideology in Sid Meier’s Colonization but in this case focusing on issues in the representation of indigenous peoples in video games.

In Tripadvisor rates Einstein: Using the social web to unpack the public meanings of a cultural heritage I used some of the same approaches to doing research grounded in discussion in online communities but instead of studying a video game I was studying online reviews of a memorial on Tripadvisor and Yelp. While working on those projects I was also working on  Lego, Handcraft, and Costumed Zombies: What Zombies do on Flickr which is more about the way that Flickr and it’s discovery system for photos was enabling new ways to explore and study trends in vernacular culture. In The invention and dissemination of the spacer gif: implications for the future of access and use of web archives Grace Thomas and I dove into the kinds of historical research one can get into on the history of web design through working with web archives. 

22 History TikToks

I’ve been surprised to see how often historical topics or themes come up in TikToks. So I went ahead and pulled together this listicle of 22 history TikToks. Some of them are pretty funny. Some of them have gotten quite a few views.  I think it’s interesting to see the way that young people are fitting historical info into the rhetorical forms that play out on TikTok.

The French Revolution

@rose_freya_And that’s on the reign of terror ##history ##foryou ##fyp♬ original sound – kasey.smo

Zimmerman telegram

@meme_kaiserHey Mexico you trynna invade the US? ##fyp ##greenscreen ##foryoupage ##tiktok ##PlayWithLife ##writethelyrics ##petparent ##ChilisBirthday ##history♬ Let’s go! – kevwithin

Martin Luther 

@baileyelizajust 1517 tings (shoutout to my art history zoom class for the inspo) ##foryou ##fyp ##history ##zoomuniversity ##apeuro♬ original sound – kasey.smo

The Plague

@zeauxiehas this been done before ? i sure hope not ##history ##fyp♬ Original Sound – yungtubesock

History of Psychology

@slaviccaesarSome AP Psych ##appsych ##psych ##foryou ##history ##historymemes♬ This Could Be Us – Rae Sremmurd

 

 

WWII 

@daddythanosschmeetThese alliance systems in Europe can date back to the Austrian-Prussian war of 1866. ##fyp ##foryoupage ##History ##historymemes ##WWI♬ roped me – nibbavids

Peppered moths

@slaviccaesarThe amount of times I’ve had to learn about these moths ##apbio ##historymemes ##history ##foryou ##fyp♬ original sound – chaser

Francis Drake

@annemariehw##foryoupage ##history ##historymemes♬ original sound – annemariehw

Colonization 

@eboyavocadoThis deserves so much more love than it’s getting ##marchforsisterhood ##nativeamerican ##british ##spanish ##french ##apush ##history ##comedy ##fyp ##viral♬ original sound – jamesc_a

History of “Brah”

@reu3enbruh moment… hopefully this hasn’t been done yet ##getmefamous ##foryoupage ##fyp ##bruhmoment ##foryou ##inthecrowd♬ ear rape remix – ryleemgibson

German war debt 

@cavestripperMaking jokes about war reparations instead of lifting modern marks check mate buddy♬ original sound – adamcoil74

Treaty of Versailles

@toombraiderWTH tiktok took this down ##SpicySnap ##greenscreengaming ##SavingsShuffle♬ original sound – adamcoil74

Boston Tea Party 

@mattmoseleyOnly intellectuals will get this ##foryou ##foryoupage ##SpicySnap ##SavingsShuffle ##thatsrelatable ##tinymeatgang♬ original sound – adamcoil74

Louisiana purchase

@alana.luisaaI’m reposting this cause I think my APUSH TikTok was better than everyone else’s. ##APUSH ##louisianapurchase ##fyp♬ original sound – alana.luisaa

@jacksonnburnsGuys please come I need support ##foryou ##fyp ##foryoupage ##viral ##history ##louisianapurchase♬ original sound – jacksonnburns

Jefferson & States Debts 

@naayelydoes this count as studying for my APUSH test? ##APUSH ##history ##foryoupage ##hamilton ##SpicySnap ##SavingsShuffle ##thomasjefferson ##greenscreen♬ original sound – adamcoil74

Worst Presidents 

@mx_fannin##greenscreen part 3 (2/2) of 45 ##presidents ##usa ##history ##funfacts ##thomasjefferson ##xyzbca ##controvercy ##president ##fyp ##politics♬ Roses – Imanbek Remix – SAINt JHN

Andrew Jackson & the Trail of Tears

@empress_of_history##apushmemes ##apush ##andrewjackson ##trailoftears ##ushistory♬ original sound – jamesc_a

@basicallybillnye39Trail of tears:##fyp##foryou##history##historymeme##andrewjackson##school##morph##neverzero##nativeamerican##4♬ Back Up – DeJ Loaf feat. Big Sean

@aidenloya##greenscreen and that is on trail of tears ☹️##fyp ##apush♬ I HAVE MY OWN CHICKEN – aryamour_

The Civil War 

@_justindCivil war ##iykyk ##foryou ##peaceandlove ##southcarolina♬ Wait i have an idea – number_1_spongebob_fan

Protestant Reformation

@raguwuspaghettisauceHMU for addy ##fyp ##function ##martinluther ##reformation ##apeuro ##foryoupage ##protestant♬ Faneto – Chief Keef

Book.Files and the Inversion of Born Digital

Below are three images of my book, The Theory and Craft of Digital Preservation. The first is a picture I took of a print copy of the book. The second is the book cover on Amazon. The third is from Johns Hopkins University Press page for the book.

One of them is not like the other. Can you spot the difference?

The first one, the print copy, is the outlier. It has a completely different picture than the latter two. It’s almost the same but not quite. The picture on the cover of the print book was taken by Jermaine Taylor and posted to instagram shortly after I got my floppy disk tattoo in 2017. The second is a photo I took of my arm, when I couldn’t source a higher resolution file of Jermaine’s instagram photo. I emailed both of them to the press as an idea for the cover of the book. I took the second photo because I was concerned that the instagram photo might not be at a high enough resolution to use in print.

The photo I took is, in all the places where book covers appear, the cover of the book. It is also the cover of the eBook version. With that said, all the print copies of the book actually have Jermaine’s photo on their cover. Which in all honesty I think is an objectively better picture. As far as I can ascertain, at some point whoever was actually doing the layout for the print book ended up deciding to use the photo from instagram instead of the photo I took. I think it was a good call.

I proposed that picture of my tattoo as a cover for the book because I thought it spoke to some of the themes in the book. The floppy disk is a medium on which we write digital content. Beyond that it’s now the save icon. Jermaine encoded an instance of that icon with ink in my skin. Much of the book is about how messy and complicated the world of digital content is, in large part, because it’s the result of the accrual of the work of people kludging together things on-top of the work of other people. The fact that there are now these variances in the book cover out in the world itself helps to further demonstrate that point. Online, and in its eBook form there exists one cover based on a photo I took. But based on decisions made in the workflow and process that created the physical copies of my book, the print copies all have Jermaine’s instagram photo on them. The messiness of the digital plays out through the workflows and processes that create digital books. Some of those files get printed out. I interacted with a ton of digital files in getting the book to the publisher and then a range of digital files had lives I don’t know about that resulted in the production of the tangible book.

I offer this anecdote as my own personal point of entry and connection to the Matthew Kirschenbaum’s m recently published report Books.Files Preservation of Digital Assets in the Contemporary Publishing Industry

Book.Files and the Inversion of Born Digital 

If you’re work has any connections to book publishing and production or collections in libraries and archives related to creative production you are going to want to make time to download and read Books.Files Preservation of Digital Assets in the Contemporary Publishing Industry. The report does an excellent job in providing an overview of the shift to digital workflows in the publishing industry. In this respect, it makes for a great companion to the 2011 report from CRL on digital workflows in the news industry Preserving News in the Digital Environment: Mapping the Newspaper Industry in Transition. I’m always interested to see work like this that involves in-depth engagement with partners in the creative industries. 

From the Book.Files report you get a great sense of the handoffs that occur in the production, transmission, tracking and management of books as digital files. From all the handoffs of word files with track changes into processes with Adobe InDesign, through to XML files and or PDFs that become the basis of printing books or creating eBook files.

Below are some quotes I pulled out that I found particularly striking and relevant for thinking about collections for libraries and archives. 

  •  “As early as 1999, an article in Publishing Research Quarterly observed that publishing “is coming to mean producing digital content which can subsequently be delivered in different media, rather than producing books or journals””
  • “there is at least one simple, uncontestable fact that obtains for any book produced with commercial press processes in the last twenty years, and which will continue to obtain for the foreseeable future. That fact is this: a book is a file, which is to say it is a persistent digital asset stored in a digital repository somewhere.“
  • “A “book” is thus the born-digital potential for a file to become a book first, and a physical, tangible object in our hands only secondarily. Every new book on our shelves has its shadow in a digital file, or more precisely a set of digital files consisting of the various assets needed to bring the book into being. A physical book nowadays is a surrogate for a digital master.”
  • “Increasingly, this means that the EPUB file becomes the version of record for the book. If the publisher wishes to retain a separate format-independent rendition of the book, any changes or updates in the EPUB must then be back-propagated to the original XML in order to keep versions consistent.”

I think these observations, along with the rest of the report, offer an opportunity for folks that work with collecting, preserving, and providing access to books and records of the history of the book. My sense is that the results this kind of study in nearly any other creative industry would produce similar results. So I think the results here are relevant to anyone interested in the production and circulation of creative works and their histories. 

Born Digital is the Norm, Born Analog is the Outlier

The report hits home that cultural heritage institutions interested in collecting and preserving contemporary cultural works need to be centering digital content in their approaches.  Increasingly the physical objects that come into collections are themselves the digital surrogates and it’s worth asking when the print surrogate for the digital asset is good enough given that the source for that object is increasingly a digital resource. 

History of Creative Industries is Increasingly Born Digital 

The report illustrates the ongoing major shifts relevant to the records of cultural production. This has huge implications for special collections work that involves acquiring the archives of creative industries. At this point books are a key case study in this shift, but the same is true for photography, film, the performing arts, music, etc. Creative production has become almost an entirely digital set of workflow process and the future of archives of industries and creators in these media will involve engaging with these increasingly born digital content streams. 

Variance Abounds Across Digital Instantiations of Works

The report includes a series of examples of how and where variances enter into the workflows and processes as various stakeholders “touch” book files over the course of their production and the varied output files that are produced. The example of my book cover is in this case not an outlier, it’s  another example of kinds of variances that enter into the management of books as digital assets. In that cloud of files, it becomes increasingly difficult to talk about a definitive or authoritative copy of a work. My sense is that this issue of variance is going to become increasingly important for libraries, archives, and museums to figure out. On that front, I think some of Cathy Marshal’s work and  Richard Rinehart and Jon Ippolito’s work is relevant for further exploring this issue.

In Digital Copies and a Distributed Notion of Reference in Personal Archives Cathy Marshal explores the various kinds of copies and derivatives that people produce in managing and sharing videos and photos. Below is a map of the kinds of variances she observes.

Ultimately, Marshal argues for the need to step back from thinking of their being a canonical instance of a work and to instead embrace that what we are going to end up with is varied copies that instantiate important differences as those copies take on lives of their own. Significantly, this means stepping bak from the notion of “derivatives” to instead see each copy of a work as contributing to a distributed notion of it.

I think Marshal’s observations are relevant for thinking forward about how we likely want to approach all kinds of digital creative workflows; “we will not only want to see copies, but we‘ll also want to harmonize them, to harvest their metadata, to select among them. Instead of relying on a simple notion—the truth is in the cloud, embodied as a single reference copy—we will want to expand our sense of what is entailed by the notion of a reference copy and turn to a distributed, social model.”

In Re-collection: Art, New Media, and Social Memory  Richard Rinehart and Jon Ippolito also take a run at the idea of a canonical master file for any given work. They suggest that with digital media, in many cases instead of thinking about a master file it’s more important to be looking for what they call “mother files;” the editable files that enable a wide range of outputs. You can see more on their thinking in the pull quote from the book below.

Altogether I think the report makes for a great read and I think it helps to draw out some major issues facing libraries and archives for the future. More and more of the material of culture is digital from the start. The issues faced by the proliferation of variance and copies still something that we have a long way to go to fully understand and integrate into how we think about our work.

I’m curious for thoughts any and all of you have about the questions the report brings out.

 

Growing up with THATcamp

The Humanities and Technology Camp (THATCamp) has announced the program is sunsetting and is hosting a retrospective on the site. I’m crossposting some quick reflections there and here. 

I think I’ve been to at least 9 THATCamps. I was at the the first one at CHNM in 2008. I missed 2009. But I was at the CHNM ones in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013. I also went to THATCamp NCHP in 2012 and then that I went to THATCamp Leadership in 2013, THATCamp DC in 2014, and THATCamp AHA in 2014.

In piecing that together, I’m realizing that I think it’s been six years since I’ve been to a THATCamp. So I went to 9 of them in one six-year period and apparently haven’t gone to any of them in the subsequent six-year period. Time is strange. The first one in 2008 feels like forever ago and the more recent ones feel like things that happened not that long ago. But I realize and recognize that the strangeness of time is also connected to how the camps fit into my career.

Running the registration desk with Dave Lester at THATcamp 2012 https://20.rrchnm.org/items/show/388

My First Camps

In 2008 I was finishing a masters degree and working on Zotero at CHNM. We got a lot of work done and we had a lot of fun. I kept buying shirts on Shirt.woot.  I have fond memories of going out to lunch with the group, setting up websites, buying up domain names, going out on the road to push open source software for reference management. The first THATcamp was wild. People came from all over and it was invigorating.

The idea of the unconference felt really powerful. Reserve some space on campus, set up a wordpress instance, buy some coffee and donuts, and let people sign up to propose things they wanted to talk about and then all of a sudden there was a whole conference happening. It was a great conference too. Folks left with a whole bunch of new connections and awareness of a bunch of projects that related to work they were interested in.

That was very much my experience at least. At those first camps I found myself meeting all these new folks and connecting with new work and ideas. There were undergrads there that just figured out how to do some cool thing and they were teaching full professors about it. The ‘un’ ness of it was really strong. It felt like there was buy in that

There was just a lot of inversion of hierarchies. As I wrote about in 2011, it felt like there was this DIY spirit that animated many the work in the space and that was invigorating. It’s also funny looking back on that blog post and seeing that people left comments there. In a lot of ways the early days of blogging feel like part of the THATCamp heyday when we operated in some pretty fundamentally different conversation spaces.

My Later Camps

At THATcamp NCPH 2012 https://ncph.org/history-at-work/return-of-thatcamp-ncph/

I have less vivid memories of some of the later camps. That said, when I did that run of them in 2012, 2013 and 2014 it felt like the concept of the camps had become a rather well-functioning system. It also started to feel like a lot of the same conversations were playing out again at some of the camps.

It was fun to take part in that. It felt great to become more of a facilitator of some of that. That said, in some of the later camps there would also be times when someone would pitch “Shouldn’t there be a thing like X, what if we started making it right now!?” and then one of the folks who had been coming for a while would chime in with something like “That sounds a lot like A, B, C, D, or E and four out of five of those letters ended up being unsustainable for somewhat intractable reasons 1, 2, and 3.” In that context, I think I burned out a little from some of the can do attitude of just roll yourselves up and make a thing ideals that I feel like were so central to THATcamp. The hustle of that DIY world and impulse gets exausting. It’s also clear that the big, hard, challenging seemingly intractable things keep coming up and don’t lend themselves well to the format. It also feels like we’ve lost a lot of the optimism that surrounded those events, I think in part as it feels like the community became more aware and engaged with how problematic the values at play in digital technology ideologies are.

THATCamp Temporal Vertigo

Thinking back over the 12 years from the beginning of THATcamp makes me feel something a bit like a professional vertigo. When the first camp happened, I was 23 and half way through a master’s program and about two years into really working my first full-time job. It felt so exciting to be connecting with folks at all levels of their careers and getting positive feedback about ideas I had for projects. It’s hard for me to process through what parts of my feelings and thoughts about the camps are about the events themselves and what parts are really about my growth and development. So take all of my reflections on this with a grain of salt. I don’ t believe I can separate out what parts of this are about me and what parts of them are about the events.

Growing through and and from THATCamp

With that said, it does feel like things have substantively changed in the digital history and digital humanities spaces since those camps. As areas like digital history and the digital humanities went through a range of periods of growth and faced substantive criticism they changed. In many ways I think they changed for the better. It feels like a more critical set of approaches and thinking going on across these spaces these days. As the fields THATCamp helped to energize have grown up it feels OK that we may have outgrown it as a tool.

With that said, I also accept that I can’t extract my history and experience from this perspective. I grew up professionally in dialog with those THATCamp events and I know they were formative in shaping how I think about and approach things and many of the collaborations and relationships that my career is anchored in.

A told, I think I mainly am left with a lot of gratitude for the chance to be in the place and time where THATCamp came together. I owe so much to the people who I was able to learn from in those events and they are going to forever be a foundational part of my career.

Digital Preservation, Digital History, & Digital Curation: A 2019 Year in Review

As the end of the year comes to a close, I make time organize and synthesize what I’ve been up to across different parts of my work each year. You can see my reflections at the end of 2018, 2017, 20152014, 2013, and 2012. I’m a big fan of the value of metacognition, so I tend to feel like I get a lot out of taking a little time to round up, reflect, and try and synthesize things at least once a year.

This year I’ve organized things into work managing and coaching teams at the Library of Congress, work communicating about digital preservation, and broader engagements in teaching, learning, and scholarship in digital history and digital curation. 

From Start-Up to Highly Productive Teams

DCM team members developing shared values. More on this on The Signal

In 2018, I worked to bring on 10 new staff who joined the Web Archiving Team as part of the newly formed Digital Content Management Section at the Library of Congress.

This year I was continually impressed by how the team was able to deliver results,  continuously improve our approach to planning, tracking, and executing projects, and at the same time have a lot of fun. You can get some sense of the kinds of things folks have been up to on the team through posts from the group on The Signal

In 2019, the team refined and published a set of values that guide our work, provided a deep dive into how web archives data works and published a series of derivative file datasets from web archives, (images, tabular data, audio, PDFs, PowerPoints). We also were able to complete  a multi-year effort to define and publish policy and guidance on managing digital collections in the Digital Collections Management Compendium. We helped advance parts of the Library of Congress Digital Collecting Plan, in areas including acquiring, preserving, and making available open access children’s books and open-access Latin American monographs. We were able to make available a corpus of 1.7 million digitized images from more than a hundred years of U.S. Telephone directories. We also had a great time hosting ARL’s Digital and Inclusive Excellence Fellows for a day to share information about various areas of work at the Library of Congress. Beyond The Signal, the team also published analysis of file extensions in the Library of Congress digital collections. I should note that the highlight reel from The Signal and our publications is just the tip of the iceberg of the work our section is making happen. Most of our work is inwardly focused and it’s only a small portion of the work that we draw attention to online. 

As our section moved out from its start-up phase into highly productive teams this year, we also worked through a series of transitions. Over the course of the year, four of the original ten team members that came on board in the beginning 2018 ended up advancing their careers into other roles at the Library of Congress or other libraries. Since then, two new team members have come on to fill their shoes and are already making great contributions to the work, and we are in the process of bringing on additional team members as well. I’ve been thrilled to see how throughout those transitions the teams have done a great job of prioritizing, rebalancing, shifting, and supporting each other as we review what we are able to pull off. I’m personally very proud of the culture and values we have established which I think is working to ensure that we can respond to change and ramp up and put on hold work as needed. 

Continuing to get the word out on Digital Preservation

This year I continued to spread the word about digital preservation and digital collections management. My third book, the Theory and Craft of Digital Preservation, came out at the end of 2018. I’ve been thrilled with the great response it received over the course of 2019. In 2019 the book won two major awards the Association for Library Collections & Technical Services 2019 Outstanding Publication Award and the Society of American Archivists 2019 Waldo Gifford Leland Award. I found it deeply rewarding to win this kind of recognition from both the librarians of the ALA and the archivists of the SAA. 

Alongside the awards, in 2019 the book was positively reviewed in at least eight different journals; Archivar,  Mid-Atlantic ArchivistLibrary Resources and Technical Services, the Journal of Archival OrganizationMetropolitan Archivist, The Journal of the Archives and Records Association,  College and Research Libraries, and Archivaria. Mid way through the year, Johns Hopkins University Press reached out about publishing a second printing. It’s rewarding to see such a great response to the book and to hear about how it is helping a range of working librarians, archivists, and curators to advance their craft in ensuring enduring access to digital content. 

Presenting on Digital Preservation at the United Nations in Geneva.

Over the course of the year I was gave a series of major talks about digital preservation. I gave opening keynotes on digital preservation at the Federal Depository Libraries Conference, the Lapidus Initiative Digital Collections Fellowship Symposium, and the Simposio Internacional de la Maestría en Conservación de Acervos Documentales in Mexico City.  As an opening keynote for the Project Muse Partner meeting, Sayeed Choudhury interviewed me about key issues for scholarly publishing relating to digital preservation. I also gave invited lectures on digital preservation at the United Nations  in Geneva and the Zentralbibliothek Zürich.

Beyond talks specifically drawing from the book, I participated on a panel on preserving eBooks with colleagues from the British Library, Library Archives Canada, and the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek at the International Digital Preservation Conference in Amsterdam. I was invited to present as an expert on modeling digital preservation risks to the NIH sponsored National Academy of Sciences workshop on Forecasting Costs for Preserving, Archiving, and Promoting Access to Biomedical Data. At the Digital Library Federation Conference, I was invited alongside Dan Cohen, and Chela Weber to be a respondent to Carol Mandel’s recent work exploring the state of digital collecting and preservation. All together it was a great year for continuing to share out about digital preservation. 

Ongoing Digital History and Curation Teaching, Scholarship, & Service

Talking about design thinking at the University of Maryland.

Outside my digital preservation work, I continue to be engaged in a range of teaching, scholarship and service relating to digital history and digital curation more broadly.

I wrote a post on this blog asking some questions about the history of using the term archive as a verb. A chapter I wrote on service in archives, Archives as a Service: From Archivist as Producer and Provider to Archivist as Facilitator and Enabler, was published in Archival Values: Essays in Honor of Mark Greene. A review I wrote of Science in the Archives: Pasts, Presents, Futures was published in American Archivist. I also participated in a really fun panel on Documenting Online Cultures at the American Folklore Society’s Annual Meeting. I started working through some new material in an opening keynote I gave on The Centrality of Design Thinking and Scholarship for the Future of Library Practice at the University of Maryland’s Libraries Research and Innovative Practice Forum. 

In the spring taught my Digital Public History Methods graduate seminar for the 6th time at American University’s History Program. In recognition for ongoing work and teaching related to digital history, the program upgraded my title from lecturer to Public Historian in Residence. I continue to be impressed by the creativity and innovative thinking of students in the program.

In the Fall I taught a new course on Digital Curation Policy and Ethics for the University of Maryland’s iSchool. This was the first fully online course I’ve taught, so I was curious to see how it would go. Overall, I was consistently impressed by the quality of work students did. I hope many of those students go on to refine and revise some of the excellent papers they worked on for the course for publication. Students wrote about everything from ethical issues in algorithmic curation of news, to legal issues in digital reproductions of artworks, to ethical issues surrounding labor practices relating to digitization contracts. 

Teaching those two courses brings the total number of graduate seminars I’ve taught since 2011 to ten. I continue to enjoy the way that working in the classroom helps keep me sharp and offers me a chance to stay fresh on some of the fundamentals in both digital history and in digital curation. 

Along with  teaching and research,  I continued to participate as a board member for the Anacostia Trails Heritage Area, as a founding board member of Digital Cultural Heritage D.C., as a member of the CLIR Hidden Collections Digitization Program review panel, and as a member of the Digital Library Federation Advisory Committee. In short, I keep busy.

The book wall from readings this year.

I got a lot out of reading this year. I finally made time to read Sorting Things Out: Classification and its Consequences and I can confirm it is indeed an outstanding resource for connecting work in science and technology studies with  work on knowledge infrastructure in library and information science. I read both The Revolution Will Not Be Funded: Beyond the Non-Profit Industrial Complex and Just Giving: Why Philanthropy Is Failing Democracy and How It Can Do BetterBoth offer powerful critiques on the effect of philanthropy on society. I’m thinking a lot about The Revolution Will Not be Funded. I think it opens up some really fundamental questions about how non-profits and philanthropy function in society. I got a lot out of readings on stoicism,  scrum, and re-reading Getting Things Done, and am still processing some of the ideas from the polemical It Doesn’t Have to Be Crazy at Work. 

Marjee and me as Kurt and Courtney.

Beyond all these aspects of work, Marjee and I had a lot of fun with other projects, friends, and family. She was the maid of honor and I was the best man at my Mom and Todd’s wedding outside Milwaukee. We both caught up with my family at an Owens’s family reunion in Holly, Michigan. I had a ton of fun backing up Marjee on two days of shooting footage at the Small Press Expo for what will be an amazing forthcoming documentary film. Last but not least, I think we made a pretty good Kurt and Courtney for Halloween.

Overall, this has been a great year. I very much enjoy the ability to work inside a huge cultural heritage organization and at the same time manage and develop teaching and scholarship along with that work. It seems like I’m hitting a good balance there. As far as goals for next year, the biggest thing I’ve been trying to focus on is being very deliberate about what kinds of projects I take on. I ultimately aspire to be able to spend more time focusing on fewer things.

 

When and how did “archive” become a verb?

Archives are places. They are institutions. But to archive is also an action. Web Archiving is a process that produces web archives and personal digital archiving is a set of practices for working to ensure longterm access to personal digital content.

When and how did archive become a verb? Webster’s dates the noun usage to 1603 and the verb usage to 1831, but I’m curious how obscure the verb usage was over time.

My sense/hunch has been that the verb form of archive, is tied up in the history of computing. A tape archive is a higher latency storage mechanism. There is a long standing use of “archiving” as a concept that involves writing to tape. The term tape is itself part of the name of .tar files. So, when did archive become a verb and to what extent is archiving related to the development of computing?

This kind of question is exactly the sort of thing that Google n-gram is useful for. Over time I’ve generated a few different graphs of trends around the verb usage of archive in Google books and posted them to twitter. It seemed like it would be worth taking a few minutes to explore that data a bit more. What follows is really just some initial notes on some searches. I’m curious to get other interpretations on what we learn from these charts and examples of usage.

When the archived and began archiving

The graph below, shows trends in usage of archive in the Google books corpus from 1920 to 2000. Overall, it would appear that the term archive has seen a good bit of growth in its relative frequency in appearing in the corpus over time.

If we take out the noun form of archive and extend this back to 1800, you can see that there are a tiny number of examples of the verb forms going back all the way to beginning of the chart in 1800, but that things don’t really start to take off until the late 1960s.

The Emergence of “Archiving” 

One of the best parts of Google n-gram is that it is a book search tool as much as it is a visualization tool. That means that we can poke around and see the examples where these different usages emerge.

Below is an example of one of the first instances of the term “archiving” connected to the term “data” in the google books corpus. It’s from a 1968 appropriations hearing for a climatological data center. That places it right at the inflection point for the verb form usage of archive.

From that point out, the term archiving seems to appear primarily in relationship to computing. All of the examples of the term archiving are references to data for usage of the term in google book results from the 1970s.

With that noted, there are two examples from 1969 that involve using the term archiving in relationship to folklore.

A longer past for archiving and archived

As noted in the beginning of this post, Webster’s suggests the verb form of archive came about in 1831. There are a range of examples of “archived” that show up, even earlier than 1831, for instance the example below from 1823 or this other example from 1816.

The snippet below is one of a series of documents from the turn of the 20th century in Texas that use the terms archiving and archived that appear to largely be related to usage of the term in the “Constitutions of Texas

There are even a few other earlier examples of “archiving” that show up, like in this 1913 report from the Nevada Historical Society reports a “need of better archiving” in a heading in the table of contents.

So when did archive become a verb? 

It would appear that archive has been a verb for more than two hundred years. With that noted, it does also largely appear to be the case that the verb usage didn’t really come into broader usage until the late 1960s when it was largely associated with data and computing.

I’m curious to see what other examples or perspectives others have though. I was a bit surprised to surface some of these earlier examples of uses of archiving and archived.

Building, Growing, Learning: Looking back at 2018

It’s hard to believe that another year has gone by. I’ve made it a habit to reflect on each year and post about it here. You can see my reflections at the end of 2017,  2015,  2014, 2013, and 2012. I’m a big fan of the value of metacognition, so I tend to feel like I get a lot out of taking a little time to round up, reflect, and try and synthesize things at least once a year.

This year, I was able to build, support, and learn from the new Digital Content Management team at work. I made the list of Library Journal “Movers & Shakers” where I was given the headline “Access Forever,” which I feel like captures a lot of what I’m into. I had the chance to teach new iterations of two graduate seminars. I joined a few different boards that are helping me stay engaged in communities that matter a lot to me. Also, my book came out! I get into all of that a bit more below

Building the digital content management team

Most of the new Digital Content Management Section (and colleagues) on the stage at the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center (Photo by Mike Mashon)

Over the first three months of 2018, the Digital Content Management section at LC went from seven folks to sixteen. Setting up the functions and structure of the new team and connecting out to all the great work going on across the organization was an exciting, exhausting, and invigorating adventure. I wrote about this a bit on The Signal. I’m really blown-away by how quickly everyone has jumped into things, and very excited by how quickly we transitioned from getting up to speed to doing meaningful and productive work.

I’m particularly thrilled with how I think we have been able to consciously build, maintain, and work to improve a and supportive culture and learning community. You can get a sense of some of the things we have been up to in Signal posts on topics such as; metadata for web archives, animated GIF datasets, library carpentry workshops, and archiving science blogs. Stay tuned for more on our crew’s work on The Signal.

Growing as a coach and manager

As part of my work at the Library of Congress, I was lucky to get to participate in the pilot of a new intensive cohort program focused on developing leaders in the five core qualifications areas for Senior Executive Service; Leading Change, Leading People ECQ, Results Driven, Business Acumen, and Building Coalitions. The program involved 19 days of expert facilitated leadership workshops complemented by a sequence of three 360 reviews on leadership practices, emotional intelligence, and trust.

Workshops covered topics such as; Coaching and Mentoring, Crucial Conversations, Leadership Essentials, Leading at the Speed of Trust, DiSC, Getting Things Done, Leadership Practices, and Navigating Change in Turbulent Times. It was challenging to juggle the program and getting everything up and running. With that said, a lot of the training was particularly pertinent to the work at hand in getting things going. The 360 reviews were especially helpful in getting me feedback from the team on what I could improve on.

My third book dropped

Holding the book when it came in

It’s been a long time coming, but just this month my book The Theory and Craft of Digital Preservation shipped. Most of the work on the book was done last year, but I did do a bit of work responding to some comments and making some revisions in response to comments that came up from the readers of it for peer review. Over the course of the year the pre-print was downloaded more than 2,600 times. I’m really excited to see what kind of reaction the print copy receives over the course of the year.

This is my third book; the first was a local history book with scans of postcards from Fairfax County VA, and the second is the result of my dissertation research on how power and control work in the design of online community software systems. I really like both of those books, but I feel like this is the first one is the most “me.” Even reading it now, I feel like I’ve found my voice and area where I am able to make my best and most meaningful contributions. Alongside the book, I wrote up a little piece about parsimony and elegance as guiding principles in digital library systems, some reflections on the amazingly good book Forms: Whole, Rhythm, Hierarchy, Network, and the forward to the No-Nonsense Guide to Born Digital Content.

Getting out there and getting the word out

Pointing at a slide at NLM. Realizing that cardigan got a lot of mileage this year.

While I did a lot less work-related travel than I have in previous years, I did still get around a good bit. I was invited to give a talk as part of the National Library of Medicine’s History of Medicine Lectures series.

I ended up with a great turn out for my talk, Scientists’ Hard Drives, Databases, and Blogs: Preservation Intent and Source Criticism in the Digital History of Science, Technology and Medicine.” At some point, I hope to turn that talk into an article. But it’s likely going to be a while before I get around to that.

I gave opening keynote addresses at two very different conferences. At the Mid-Atlantic Regional Archivists Association’s Conference I gave a talk called Start Today: Digital Stewardship Communities & Collaborations. At the Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, I gave a talk titled We Have Interesting Problems: Some Applied Grand Challenges from Digital Libraries, Archives and Museums. I had a ton of fun at both events and got a great response from attendees about the talks.

I also ended up going to Boston twice. Once as a participant in MIT Libraries’ Grand Challenges in Information Science and Scholarly Communication Summit and to the International Conference on Digital Preservation. Both were very engaging thought provoking meetings. I was also able to get out to the Digital Library Federation and the National Digital Stewardship Alliances conferences. It was great to be able to get out to and participate in these events and continue to stay in the loop on developments in the field.

Service work and engaging in communities

This year I moved into a series of new roles to serve and support a series of communities that matter to me. I joined the board for Anacostia Trails Heritage Area Inc which supports community development around history, culture, and nature in Prince George’s County Maryland. I also joined the Digital Library Federation Advisory Committee and have now participated in two of the advisory board meetings.

I became a member of the CLIR’s Digitizing Hidden Special Collections and Archives standing review panel. I also helped to transition the Digital Cultural Heritage D.C. meetup to a model where it now is organized by a board of six of us working on digital cultural heritage issues in the metro area at different institutions. I really enjoy the opportunity to contribute my time and effort to these different groups and their efforts and I feel like it’s something that helps me keep learning and connecting with others working on issues that matter a lot to me.

Teaching digital history and digital preservation

In the spring I taught a revised version of my Digital History graduate seminar. This was the fifth time I’ve taught the course in the last seven years. Given that the course counts as a “tool of research” course for American University’s history and public history programs, I reframed it as “Digital History Methods.” I really like how the course ran. Students came up with a range of smart ideas for digital history projects. You can see links to their projects and reflections here. I’m now gearing up to teach another instance of the course this spring.

I’m just wrapping up teaching my fall semester Digital Preservation graduate seminar for the University of Maryland’s iSchool. This is the fourth course I’ve taught for the iSchool and the second time I’ve taught the digital preservation course. It was also the first time I’ve been able to teach the course using the digital preservation book. Last time I taught the course the course syllabus largely became the format for the structure of the book. I think it worked out well to anchor the course in the book and then supplement it with additional readings each week. I’m really impressed by the results of the work that the digital preservation students were able to do as consultants for small cultural heritage orgs as part of the course. You can read the results of their work on the projects page of the course site.

NOLA, Central Europe, and some good shows

Alongside these various strands of work, Marjee and I also made some great excursions. We were graciously hosted by a good friend in New Orleans for a week early in the year and took off for two weeks for our tenth anniversary to visit Copenhagen, Budapest, Vienna, Prague, and Krakow. If you’re interested, both of those trips are rather well documented on instagram.

We also saw a bunch of great live music this year. I will likely forget something, but we saw; Chad Valley, Rasputina, Tash Sultana, Jack White, Andrew Bird with the NSO, Erasure, and RJD2.

 

DCHDC Seeks Board Members: Get Involved!

It’s hard to believe, but the Digital Cultural Heritage D.C. Meetup is coming up on its 6th Birthday. Starting in September of 2012, the Meetup has hosted more than 60 events with more than 100 speakers. What started out as an event launched and coordinated by four folks shifted over time to be coordinated by myself and Atiba. In an effort to make the group more open and transparent and more sustainable, we’ve decided to try and slightly formalize the process for coordinating the group and invite others into the circle to coordinate this. To that end, we are announcing an opportunity for members of the D.C. Digital Cultural Heritage Community to join the two of us as members of the DCHDC Board.

 

What Will the DCHDC Board Be?

The DCHDC Board will be a a new group that will meet quarterly to coordinate planning the meetup. The core part of this involves coordinating with lightning talk speakers and being on hand for many of the meetups. Beyond that, there are also lots of other potential directions this could go. The group could try out any number of new things too.

 

Why You Want to Consider Volunteering for the DCHDC Board

We’ve gotten a lot out of helping coordinate these events. It’s a great community, and it’s a great way to learn about and network with other professionals in the area. We imagine this could be a particularly good way for some early career or graduate students in the area to get involved and get some experience coordinating and running this kind of programing.

 

What Participating as a DCHDC Board Member Entails

We imagine the board commitment working as follows. Each member will;

  • Participate in quarterly face-to-face board meetings to check in on things and work out a plan for the coming quarter.
  • Sign on for one or two year terms with the ability to stay on or rotate off.
  • Take the lead on programing at least 2 of the meetups each year, including picking a theme and wrangling a set of speakers.
  • Come to as many of the meetups as they can make it to, but commit to being at at least 2-3 of the meetups to help facilitate (ideally including the meetups they have programmed).
  • Envision, propose, and implement any new ideas for ways to further develop the community.

 

How to Volunteer for Consideration for the Board

Send Atiba and me an email before November 1st with the following (akpertilla & trevor.johnowens each respectively @gmail.com.)

  1. A short bio or a link to your bio online
  2. A few sentences about your interest in participating and any ideas you might have for the group (potential themes/speakers and any other ideas you’ve got)
  3. Confirm if you would like to sign on to do this for one year or for two.

 

Plan and Next Steps

We are currently planning out the last set of meetups for the year and our idea is to bring this group together for a meeting in January. So we imagine that the first of these meetings would take place in January.